Nasikh and Mansoûkh

"AL-Haadi" had already published an article to prove the existence of Dou'aa-e-Qunout with the formula "Allaahoumma innaa Nastaî'nouka ....". Contrary to rumours that deny its existence, we have proved that this Dou'aa was indeed recited by Rasulullah (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam), the Sahaabah Kiraam (Radiyallahou anhoum) and the Taabi'îne (R).

In addition to that, we demonstrated with references that two Sourahs of the Qur'aan-e-Karim were abrogated later.

All this had been misinterpreted by some people.  There was even someone who 'claimed' that the Sourahs and abrogated verses should necessarily remain in the Qur'aan-e-Karim and cannot be removed.  However, he did not present any evidence to support his claim because there was none to support such an allegation.

This was sufficient for rejecting his claim.  Although that person condemned AL-Haadi without any evidence, that he produced a statement without any basis, Inchaa Allah, we will prove, by the grace of Allah Ta'aala, that AL-Haadi will neither be the first nor the last to make the following statement.  Rather, it is based on the Kitaaboullah,Sunnah,the statements of the Sahaabah -e-Kiraam (Radiyallahou anhoum) and the Taabi'îne (R).

If despite all the evidences, one continues to blame Al-Haadi, then there will be no doubt that these are false accusations and claims from irresponsible people who are demonstrating their own ignorance in formulating basic techniques in the Shari'ah.

Firstly, it should be borne in mind that the Qur'aan-e-Karim did undergo abrogation.

In verse 106 of Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah Ta'aala said: "Whenever We abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or one equal to it."

Commenting on this verse, Allaamah Ibn Jarir Tabari (D. 310 H) said:

"A verse abrogates another.  Sometimes, Nabi-e-Karim (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam) recited one or more verses of the Qur'aan-e-Karim which was removed later and it was forgotten."

Allaamah Tabari (R) reported the comments of the Sahaabah (Radiyallahou anhoum) and the Taabi'een (R) like Hazrat Sa'd Bin Abi Waqqaas (Radiyallahou anhu), Hazrat Oubaide bin Ou'mair and Hazrat Rabi  (R) to prove his above statement.

Allaamah Abu Bakr Al-Jassaas (D. 370 H) said:

“Sometimes 'Naskh' (abrogation) takes place with regards to the Tilaawat only but the law remains in force.  And sometimes, it takes place with regards to the law only without the Tilaawat (text) being removed.” (Ahkaam-ul-Qur'aan)

Allaamah Aboul Qaasim Hibatoullah Bin Salaamah (D. 410 H) wrote in his book "An-Naasikh wal Mansoûkh":

"Mansoûkh occcurs in three different ways in the Qur'aan-e Karim:

  1. When the text and the law are both removed.
  2. When the text is removed but the law is maintained.
  3. When the law is abrogated but the text still exists." 


Allaamah Qurtubi (D. 671) said:

"Sometimes a verse is abrogated in Tilaawat but not pertaining to the law,(like the verse concerning 'Rajm' (stoning) and sometimes, it is abrogated in both Tilaawat and law." (Tafsir Qurtubi)

Commenting on a statement by Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu), Allaamah An-Nawawi (D. 676 H) said in his comments in Muslim Sharif:

"And this forms part of the category of the verses whereby the text has been removed but the law is maintained.  And sometimes, it happens that the law is abrogated but the text remains, while in some cases it may be that the two are abrogated."

Allaamah Jalaalouddeen As-Suyuti (D. 911) says in his work "Al-Itqaan Fi Ou'loom-il-Qur'aan":

"The third category is when the Tilaawat is removed but the law is maintained."

Allaamah Shawkaanî (D. H 1250) writes in his Tafsir of Qur'aan-e-Karim 'Fath-ul-Qadir':

"Stoning is proven by authentic ahaadîce reported via "Tawaatur" (the position of a hadith transmitted by countless of people in each era) and by the unanimity of the scholars.  Rather, it is proven by the verse of the Qur'aan-e-Karim whose text was removed but its law is maintained." (Fath-ul-Qadir)

Sheikh Muhammad As-Saaboûni said in his Moukhtasar Ibn-e-Kaseer:

"These numerous riwaayaat reinforce each other and prove that the 'Rajm' verse was mentioned in the Qur'aan-e-Karim but afterwards, the Tilaawat was removed but the law was maintained."
 
All these quotations prove that Tilaawat, or the law or both can be removed pertaining to a Surah or a verse.  One who really has the knowledge of Ousoul-out-Tafsir and has studied the ahaadîce cannot pretend otherwise.

Thus, by accusing AL-Haadi despite all of these evidences is in fact accusing all Ou'lamaa-e-Deen of all eras that they have erred and led the Ummah astray.

Here we must draw the attention of our readers to a false statement made by one of our Imaams:

"When Allah Ta'aala abrogates an aayat of the Qur'aan, it remains in the Qur'aan."

In making such a statement, the Imaam went against the Ou'lamaa of all the eras.  In fact, the Moufassireen and the Mouhaddiseen say that an abrogated verse does not necessarily remain in the Qur'aan.  We have many examples of this.

Firstly, in Bukhari Sharif, Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) said:

"The verse regarding stoning formed part of what Allah Ta'aala had revealed.  So we recited, understood and memorised it.  This is why Rasulullah (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam) established stoning and we established it after him as well... "

This hadith is also narrated by Muslim Sharif among others.  Allaamah An-Nawawi began this hadith as follows:

"He (Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu)) referred to the verse that says: 'When a married man and a married woman commit adultery, then certainly stone them.' And this forms part of the category of revelations whose text has been removed but the law remains in force." (Sharh Muslim An-Nawawi)

Allaamah Shawkaanî said in Nail-ul-Autaar:

"And this one (stoning) is also proven by the stipulation of the Qur'aan that is proven by the hadith of Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) narrated by 'Djamaa'ah' (Siha Sitta) who said: 'The verse of "Rajm" (stoning) formed part of what was revealed to Rasulullah (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam).  Indeed, we have recited and memorised it.  Rasulullah (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam) stoned and we also stoned after him. "

Then, Allaamah Shawkaanî wrote:

"The removal of the Tilaawat (text) does not necessitate the abrogation of the law." (Nail-ul-Autaar)

This last statement of Shawkaanî proves that a verse can be abrogated based on the text.  Moreover, the statements of the Ou'lamaa that we quoted are very clear to prove this fact which the concerned Imaam ignored.

Ibn Maadjah had also referred to the verse of 'Rajm' and reported that Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) said:

"Indeed I have recited: 'When a married man and a married woman commit adultery, then stone them definitely.'" 

In Nail-ul-Autaar, Allaamah Shawkaanî also mentioned the hadith of Ibn Maadjah and he said that it is also found in Musnad Ahmad and he said that it is reported by the aunt (Khala) of Abu Oumaamah, Al-A'jma.

According to Al-Itqaan Fi Ouloom-il-Qur'an of Allaamah Jalaalouddeen As-Suyuti (R), the aunt (khala) of Abu Oumaamah Bin Sahl said:

"Certainly Rasulullah (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam) had already made us recite the Rajm (stoning) verse which reads: As for a married man and a married woman, then stone them for the enjoyment that they have drawn."

In his Mou'atta, Imaam Maalik (R) has also mentioned the hadith of Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) concerning the fact that the verse of 'Rajm' had been revealed in the Qur'aan.

According to Musannaf Abdur Razzaaq (126-211 H), Hazrat Ubayy bin Ka'b (Radiyallahou anhu) said:

"Surah Al-Ahzaab was almost as long as Surah Al-Baqarah, if not longer.  It is in this Surah that was the Rajm verse."

This hadith is in Sahih Ibn Hibbaan and Shawkaanî mentioned it in his book, Nail-ul-Autaar.

Allaamah Jalaalouddeen As-Suyuti reported a hadith of Hazrat Aa'ichah (Radiyallahou anha) in which she said:

"During the time of Nabi-e-Karim (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam), Surah Ahzaab was recited with a number of 200 verses."

Today Surah Al-Ahzaab contains only 73 verses.  This means that abrogation of the remaining ayaat of Tilaawat during the time of Nabi -e-Karim (Sallallaahou A'laihi Wasallam) took place.

We still have several examples where we see the texts of verses and Surahs removed.  Authentic Ahaadîce of Bukhari, Muslim and other ahaadîce books testify to it.

We deem the 'Rajm' verse sufficient as an example of evidence to support what we have said.  And that is enough to expose the falsehood of this following claim:

"And when Allah Ta'aala abrogates an Aayat of the Qur'aan, it remains in the Qur'aan."

The above example proved the contrary and - that is why we had chosen it.

Since the falsehood of this allegation is now clear, the claim that "If Dou'aa-e- Qunout was in the Qur'aan, it should have remained in the Qur'aan” is also wrong.  This is more than enough to show the shallowness of some people in regards to the basic knowledge of Deen.

To the Moufassireen and those with knowledge of Ousoul-ut-Tafsir, the fact that the Dou’aa-e-Qunout comprised of two Sourahs in the Qur’aan and later ‘mansoukh’ (abrogated) in text, is not something out of the norm nor new.

It is in the nature of man to refuse to accept and believe in what he is unaware of.  There is an Arab proverb that goes:  "Man is enemy of what he ignores."

Very often, a speaker spreads some idea that he deems correct, but when he later knows the truth, he is ashamed to admit his mistake.  Instead of accepting his mistake, he would say that he had never heard something of the like.  In other words, he would make us believe that that which he ignored, does not exist in the Shari'ah.  However, the regulations and the principles of Shari'ah are not in need of our knowledge to exist.

As a person studies, he discovers new things, things he has never heard of.  An Urdu poem says:

“Why are you crying? This is only the beginning of Ishq.  Look beyond what is going to happen."

It is therefore everyone’s duty to check all the elements and criteria before refuting anything so that one does not commit several more mistakes in order to cover up one mistake which occurred due to one’s irresponsibility.

According to Musannaf Abdur Razzaaq (126-211H), Hazrat Abdullah Bin Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) said:

"Certainly one of you will say, 'I learnt the entire Qur'aan-e-Karim."  But does he know what “the entire Qur’an” is?  Indeed, a large part of the Qur'aan-e-Karim has been removed."

Here, Hazrat Ibn Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) wants to show us that during the revelation of the Qur'aan-e-Karim, the Qur'aan had been abrogated based on Tilaawat.  But we must understand that these abrogations were made by Allah Ta'aala Himself.  No one but Him has the right to abrogate, add or subtract in the Qur'aan and the Qur'aan never bore such things because Allah Ta'aala had preserved it and He will continue to preserve it from any form of manipulation until Qiyaamah.

Let's get back to Dou'aa-e-Qunout.  Hazrat Abdur Rahmaan Bin Abzaa (Radhi Allahu ‘anhu/ R) said:

"Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) recited the Qunout together with two Sourahs (Allaahoumma innaa Nastaî'nouka ... Allaahoumma Iyyaaka na'boudou) in the Fajr Salaah before the Rouk'ou." (Tahaawi)

Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbaas (Radiyallahou anhu) said:

"Hazrat Umar (Radiyallahou anhu) used to recite two Sourahs (Allaahoumma innaa Nastaî'nouka ... Allaahoumma Iyyaaka na'boudou) in the Qunout of Fajr Salaah." (Tahaawi)

Abdur Rahmaan Bin al-Aswad-Kaahili (Rahmatullahi Alaih) reported that Hazrat A'li (Radiyallahou anhu) recited these two Sourahs in the Qunout of Fajr Salaah. (Abdur Razzaaq)

Abdul Malik Bin Souwaid (Rahmatullahi Alaih) reported that Hazrat A'li (Radiyallahou anhu) recited both Sourahs in the Qunout of Fajr. (Ibn Abu Shaibah).

We shall stop here to not lengthen this discussion/explanation further.

We highlight the fact that the Qur'aan-e-Karim is composed of 114 Sourahs and the Dou'aa-e-Qunout,other Sourahs and verses revealed were abrogated later by Allah Ta'aala Himself.

[Extracted from AL Haadi Vol.2 No.5]